Nürnberg, English conventional Nuremberg, city, Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. Bavaria’s second largest city (after Munich), Nürnberg is located on the Pegnitz River where it emerges from the uplands of Franconia (Franken), south of Erlangen.
The Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady), Nürnberg, Ger.
Obelisks, skyscrapers, and carnivals are just a few of the fixtures that make these cities famous. Test your knowledge of big cities and their features.
The city was first mentioned in 1050 in official records as Noremberg, but it had its origin in a castle (now known as Kaiserburg [imperial castle]) built about 10 years earlier by the German king Henry III, duke of Bavaria, who became in 1046 Holy Roman emperor. A settlement developed around the castle, and in 1219 the city was granted its first charter. The city soon gained full independence, becoming a free imperial city. By the latter part of the 13th century, Nürnberg was no longer solely a fortified settlement. It had developed into a city of craftsmen and patricians, and manufacturing and commerce had become the foremost sources of income.
In 1471 the painter Albrecht Dürer was born in Nürnberg. During the period of Dürer and his contemporaries—the painter Michael Wohlgemuth (his teacher), the wood sculptor Veit Stoss, the brass founder Peter Vischer, the stonecutter and sculptor Adam Kraft, as well as the cobbler-poet Hans Sachs—the arts flourished in Nürnberg as never before or since. In 1525 the tenets of the Reformation were adopted by the city, and in 1526 the scholar and Protestant leader Philipp Melanchthon founded a Gymnasium there—one of Germany’s first—which continues to bear his name. Together with the humanist Willibald Pirkheimer, the astronomer Regiomontanus, and the cosmographer Martin Behaim, the designer of the first globe, Melanchthon laid the foundation for Nürnberg’s reputation as a centre of learning in the developing Western world.
In the early 17th century, Nürnberg was at the height of its economic and cultural development, yet by 1806 it had lost its status as a free imperial city and, much indebted, became part of the kingdom of Bavaria. The shift of world trade routes from…