Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Bavaria’s second-largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia, is an energetic place where the nightlife is intense and the beer is as dark as coffee. As one of Bavaria’s biggest draws it is alive with visitors year-round, but especially during the spectacular Christmas market.
Nürnberg, English conventional Nuremberg, city, Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. Bavaria’s second largest city (after Munich), Nürnberg is located on the Pegnitz River where it emerges from the uplands of Franconia (Franken), south of Erlangen.
The Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady), Nürnberg, Ger.
Obelisks, skyscrapers, and carnivals are just a few of the fixtures that make these cities famous. Test your knowledge of big cities and their features.
The city was first mentioned in 1050 in official records as Noremberg, but it had its origin in a castle (now known as Kaiserburg [imperial castle]) built about 10 years earlier by the German king Henry III, duke of Bavaria, who became in 1046 Holy Roman emperor. A settlement developed around the castle, and in 1219 the city was granted its first charter. The city soon gained full independence, becoming a free imperial city. By the latter part of the 13th century, Nürnberg was no longer solely a fortified settlement. It had developed into a city of craftsmen and patricians, and manufacturing and commerce had become the foremost sources of income.
In 1471 the painter Albrecht Dürer was born in Nürnberg. During the period of Dürer and his contemporaries—the painter Michael Wohlgemuth (his teacher), the wood sculptor Veit Stoss, the brass founder Peter Vischer, the stonecutter and sculptor Adam Kraft, as well as the cobbler-poet Hans Sachs—the arts flourished in Nürnberg as never before or since. In 1525 the tenets of the Reformation were adopted by the city, and in 1526 the scholar and Protestant leader Philipp Melanchthon founded a Gymnasium there—one of Germany’s first—which continues to bear his name. Together with the humanist Willibald Pirkheimer, the astronomer Regiomontanus, and the cosmographer Martin Behaim, the designer of the first globe, Melanchthon laid the foundation for Nürnberg’s reputation as a centre of learning in the developing Western world.
In the early 17th century, Nürnberg was at the height of its economic and cultural development, yet by 1806 it had lost its status as a free imperial city and, much indebted, became part of the kingdom of Bavaria. The shift of world trade routes from…
With half a million people, Nuremberg is Bavaria’s second largest city. While its history dates to the 11th century, Nuremberg is most often linked to the 20th century (specifically World War II). It first served as the site of many pre-war Nazi rallies, then was nearly leveled by Allied bombing, then was the site of the famous post-war Nuremberg Trials. The city has much to offer today’s visitors, including the rebuilt Nuremberg Castle and the world-famous gingerbread at Hauptmarkt. Hansel and Gretel would have loved this place.
Following the almost total destruction of historic Nuremberg during the Second World War, the City council wisely rejected all suggestions to preserve a “tabula rasa” or, as happened in many other places, to erect a purely modern city on the ruins. It decided instead to proceed cautiously with the re-building of the old city, and it did so exceedingly well, as anyone who visits Nuremberg in “Meyer’s Universum” in 1837 sounds equally applicable today:
Modern travellers encounter on all sides evidence of Nuremberg’s 900 years of history, reflecting epochs of proud dignity as well as periods of decline and denigration and combining intellectual clarity with romantic whimsy. Here they find a city illustrative of Germany’s past and present, where the impressive monuments of many centuries of prodigious inventiveness and cultural self-confidence survive amidst the hurly-burly of a modern, dynamic metropolis.
“Such diversity protects the traveller from boredom which so often afflicts him when he goes to visit the stereotyped cities of our modern age, where every house and every square resemble each other, just like soldiers’ uniforms”. It is open to speculation why, in the words of E.T.A. Hoffmann, Nuremberg was, for princes and sovereigns, “the apple of their eye”. Be that as it may, the emperor Friedrich II decreed in his Great Charter of 1219″ … irrevocably and for all time that no citizen of this place shall have any protector other than Ourselves and Our successors, the Roman kings and emperors”. And Karl IV laid down that every future emperor had to hold his first Imperial Diet in Nuremberg.